Biologie - Alteration and Flooding of former mining areas


 
2. 
Historical development of former opencast mining areas and their remains
The coal deposits,from which the mining industry profited for many years originated circa 22 million years ago.But not until 1839 the opencast mining began by using steam engines on the hill Pomselberg.The first briquette factory was built in 1872 near the opencast mines "Antonie"and 
"Luise",so it was 36 years before the first opencast mine was created with the installation of Holzweißig-East in the large area of the Goitzsche.
In 1915 the extraction became easier because of mechanization of the coal mining by using electric spoon excavators.The mining area extended up to the area of Delitzsch with the development of the opencast mine "Paupitzsch" seven years later.In the period from 1948 till 1951 it came to the total development in the area of today´s Goitzsche.In this time there was both the beginning of the extraction in the opencast mine "Goitzsche" in 1949, Holzweißig-West in 1950 and also in the area of Muldenstein in 1951.In 1949 large parts of the brown coal businesses were transferred into national property.In 1960 there closed the opencast mine "Holzweißig-East" because the brown coal deposits were used up.

As a result of opencast-mining villages or parts of them had to be resettled 
or they disappeared completely,like Niemegk and Döbern in the 70s. 

In 1975 they changed the riverbed of the Mulde because of the total exploitation of the deposits.The following year,they started flooding the today´s known "Muldestausee"(Mulde Dam) after shutting down the opencast-mine "Muldenstein".At the beginning of the 80s, the BKK (National-owned Brown Coal-company Bitterfeld) developed and until 1991 the last two big opencast-mines, "Holzweißig-West"and"Goitzsche", were closed down.Within the 80 years of mining in Bitterfeld altogether 508 million tons of raw coal has been produced and 1,275 billion m3 soil has been moved.The development of the opencast mine "Goitzsche" stretched towards the "Zöckerritzer Liegendrückens".
The further mining was characterized by the overexcavation of the "Paupitzscher Senke", of the "Bärenholzrücken"and the "Döbener Flözaufspaltungsgabel".The main customer of the raw coal was the briquette factory of Bitterfeld, power station Zschornewitz and Vockerrode and the industrial power stations of the chemistry in Bitterfeld and Wolfen.
Altogether 5 villages (Paupitzsch, Niemegk, Döbern, Seelhausen) and parts of Petersroda had been resettled.

Results of the brown coal extraction:

  • To tap the brown coal deposits of the "Goitzsche"the Mulde flowing in a north direction had to be diverted by 9.2 km.
  • Therefore the "Muldestausee" (Mulde Dam) with its 6 km2 has been developed.
  • Within the scope of using for mining before flooding the Lober-Leine-Canal was installed.
  • Because of the coal extraction the B100,B183 and B184 (federal highways) had been moved.
  • Changing of the railway line between Bitterfeld and Delitzsch.

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Contents
1. Geographical position of opencast mining areas
2. Historical development of former opencast mining areas and their remains
3. Planning and alteration of the Goitzsche
4. Flooding of the former mining area
5. Realisation and remodelling of the open-cast mine area to the cultural landscape Goitzsche
6. Survey of inland waters quality

  
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